We are very pleased to announce the release of Selenium 3.0. If you’ve been waiting for a stable release since 2.53.1, now’s your chance to update. And if you do, here is what you’ll find:
As we’ve said before, for users of the WebDriver APIs this is a drop-in replacement. You’ll find that modern browsers, such as Chrome and Edge will continue to work just as before, and we’ve taken the opportunity to fix some bugs and improve stability. Selenium Grid users may require updates to their configuration as the json config file format has been updated, as have some of command line parameter options, but the upgrade should also be smooth.
The major change in Selenium 3.0 is we’re removing the original Selenium Core implementation and replacing it with one backed by WebDriver. This will affect all users of the Selenium RC APIs. For more information, please see the previous post.
A lot has changed in the 5 years between versions 2 and 3. When we shipped Selenium 2, the Selenium project was responsible for providing the driver for each browser. Now, we are happy to say that all the major browser vendors ship their own implementations (Apple, Google, Microsoft, and Mozilla). Because the browser vendors know their browsers better than anyone, their WebDriver implementations can be tightly coupled to the browser, leading to a better testing experience for you.
The other notable change has been that there is now a W3C specification for browser automation, based on the Open Source WebDriver. This has yet to reach “recommendation” status, but the people working on it (including members of the Selenium project!) are now focusing on finishing the text and writing the implementations.
Mozilla has been a front-runner in implementing the W3C WebDriver protocol. On the plus side, this has exposed problems with the spec as it has evolved, but it also means that Firefox support is hard to track as their engineering efforts have been forward looking, rather than on supporting the current wire protocol used by Selenium WebDriver. For now, the best advice we can offer is for you to try the latest release of geckodriver and Selenium together.
These are exciting times for browser automation! Selenium 3.0 is a major release and we’re looking forward to improving things further, as well as tracking the ongoing work of the W3C spec. Our goal is to keep the changes your tests need to deal with to an absolute minimum, to continue preserving the hard work that’s gone into writing your existing tests.
As a personal note, I’d like to say thank you to each of the many people that have worked so hard to make Selenium 3 possible. That’s not just the developers and contributors to the Open Source project (past and present), but also the engineers from Google, Microsoft, Mozilla, and Apple, and everyone involved with the W3C spec. I’d also like to say thank you to everyone who’s taken the time to report bugs, our users and our community. The project is great fun to work on and you’re the reason for that. A final thank you is due to the Software Freedom Conservancy, who have provided invaluable help with the logistics of running a large OSS project.
Happy hacking, everyone! May your tests run fast and true!
Selenium 3 is coming! As I write this, we think that “beta 4” will be the last beta before the official 3.0 release. I’m here to tell you about what’s changed, and what impact this will have on your testing.TL;DR:
- WebDriver users will just find bug fixes and a drop-in replacement for 2.x.
- Selenium Grid users will also find bug fixes and a simple update.
- The WebDriver APIs are now the only APIs actively supported by the Selenium project.
- The Selenium RC APIs have been moved to a “legacy” package.
- The original code powering Selenium RC has been replaced with something backed by WebDriver, which is also contained in the “legacy” package.
- By a quirk of timing, Mozilla have made changes to Firefox that mean that from Firefox 48 you must use their geckodriver to use that browser, regardless of whether you’re using Selenium 2 or 3.
When we released Selenium 2.0 in 2011, we introduced the new WebDriver APIs, and encouraged everyone to start moving to them. If you’re using the WebDriver APIs, then Selenium 3.0 is a simple drop-in upgrade. We’ve not changed any of the public WebDriver APIs, and the code is essentially the same as the last 2.x release. If you’re using Selenium Grid, the same applies: in most cases, you can just drop in the new JAR (or update your maven dependency to 3.0.0), and you’re done.
With Selenium 3.0, we are deleting the original Selenium Core implementation. If you use the old RC interfaces, we provide an alternative implementation that’s backed by WebDriver. This is the same “webdriver-backed selenium” that has been available as part of Selenium 2 since its release. Because the underlying technology has changed from Selenium Core to WebDriver, you may find some places where your existing tests using RC run into issues. Our experience with migrating suites is that it’s normally a systemic issue that can be fixed with a minimal engineering effort (that is, the problem is normally isolated to a few places, and these can be rewritten to avoid problems)
We’re also removing the original Selenium RC APIs from the main downloads. If you’re a Java user, and need to use them to support existing tests, then you’ll need a dependency to “org.seleniumhq.selenium:selenium-leg-rc:3.0.0” (or later!). It’s strongly recommended that you do not do this unless you absolutely need to.
If you’re someone who runs tests exported from IDE in the table format, there is now a new test runner that the project has made available for you to use that can be downloaded from the project’s website. It takes the same arguments as the old runner, and we’ve done our best to ensure the output of tests remains the same too.
At the same time as the Selenium project is shipping Selenium 3.0, Mozilla are changing the internals of Firefox in a way that makes it more stable and secure, but which also makes the community provided Firefox Driver no longer work. As such, if you use Firefox for your testing, you’ll need to use the geckodriver, which is an executable similar to the chromedriver and the Microsoft WebDriver for Edge. You’ll need to start using geckodriver even if you’re using Selenium 2 — the change is in the browser, not Selenium. Please be aware that geckodriver is alpha software, based on the evolving W3C WebDriver standard: everyone’s working flat out to give you the best testing experience they can, but there are undoubtedly some bumps in the road when it comes to testing with Firefox.
This release marks the culmination of a lot of hard work by the Selenium committers and community. I’d like to thank everyone who has been part of this process, and the Selenium users around the world who have done so much to make the project as successful as it is.